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USAH Flight Life Magazine-March 2022 Issue

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March 2022 / Volume 5/ Article F -16 F i g h t e r P i l o tCOL ON E L J e t J e r n i g a nF-16 FalconS A R A H G R E I N E R

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1 www.usaeronauticalhistory.comUSAHCONTENT1. Featured Article-Pgs. 3-20....... USAF Fighter Pilot Colonel Jet Jernigan by Jimi Simmons2. World Flight Brief Segment-Pgs. 21-26....... F-16 Falcon by Jimi Simmons 3. Women In Aviation-Pgs. 27-37........Pilot, Sarah Greiner by Jimi SImmonsStaffUnited States Aeronautical History (USAH) is a non-profit organization that was established and dedicated to preserve, educate and maintain the history of aviation in the United States and abroad. USAH is committed to making sure the history is kept alive, archived and accessible for the next generation. We are devoted to the aircraft, aviation equipment, and the stories of those men and women; from the 1903 Flyer with the Wright Brothers, to present day aviation, both Military and Civilian.We feel it is imperative to keep the existence of our Military and Civilian Aviation alive to allow our youth to explore and gain the knowledge of the great history that would otherwise be forgotten. At USAH, we are able to provide this through monthly digital magazine issues, documentaries, photos and videos. We work to support the collection and archive of information as it pertains to aviation.Here at USAH we cover many aerial events such as; U.S. Military/Military Decommissions, Commercial Aviation, Pilot, Air Shows, Experimental, Air Racing, Aerobatic, Expos and simply put...everything aviation.USAHP.O. Box 56Claymont, DE 19703(302) 927-1133 We want our Military of All Branches........those serving currently and veterans that you are never are always in our thoughts and prayers to keep you close to God's angels and to protect you while protecting our freedom and bring you home safe.Jimi Simmons: V.P.Photographer/Videographer & JournalistShawn Byers Senior Editor Photographer & Guy Spumoni Chief EditorHarry Bristow/U.K.Videographer &PhotographerDave "Hey Joe" ParsonsMilitary Liaison &Contributing Editor

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2 www.usaeronauticalhistory.comYOU CAN FOLLOW US ON If you or your company is interested in being a corporate sponsor in the production of "Flight Life Magazine", please contact us ! We have many avenues of advertising through USAH! USAH would like to thank our advertisers in this issue for their support and confidence in Flight Life Magazine:* Britt Lincoln Aerobatics * IAC Chapter 38 + Author Steve Snyder * Geneseo Airshow

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3 www.usaeronauticalhistory.comArticle by Jimi SimmonsCOL ON E L J e t J e r n i g a n

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4 I am pleased to bring the feature article in this month?s issue of Flight Life Magazine, Colonel George "Jet" Jernigan.Heroes are not known by the media use in today's society other than in Hollywood, but in the hearts of those who they have served as a hero. I am honored to have this gentleman tell his story to us and to share it with our readers. Jet?s story is that of a right-of-passage one, that with such movies as Top Gun and others barely catch a glimpse of what military pilots such as Jet endured and sacrifice to give you the freedom you enjoy today!Jet Jernigan was a normal young American boy that went to school, played sports, and enjoyed the outdoors. Hunting and fishing were his passions. He played high school football, track, swim team, and competitive water skiing. Jet currently lives in Lexington, South Carolina with his wife, and his two wonderful daughters, a few cats, and a couple of ferrets. Myself and the USA thank Jet for your 28 year service. Jet retired as a Colonel and as the former Vice wing commander at McEntire Joint National Guard Base in South Carolina. ?My father had been a Marine Corps sniper in WWII, and after he married my mother, he went to the USAF for pilot training. I was born in Moultrie Georgia while he was in Georgia for training. He then took us to Big Springs Texas and eventually back to Congaree Air Base (now McEntire) in South Carolina. He was the first pilot there to fly the P80 jet aircraft, so his buddies began calling him ?JET? Jernigan. (When I became a young fighter pilot, the older guys called me 'baby Jet', and eventually my callsign became 'Jet', after my dad). I remember growing up around my dad?s fighter pilot buddies, and seeing him fly F86?s, F-104's, and F-102's. But during the early days of jet aviation in America, there were lots of accidents and many of his friends died. He never even suggested I fly, as he didn?t want to push his son into a dangerous profession", stated Jet. Jet's Father Majjor George R. "Jet" JerniganCOL ON E L J e t J e r n i g a n

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5 www.usaeronauticalhistory.comJet had never been in an aircraft until he went into the military to be a pilot. After graduation from high school, Jet accepted a full USAF ROTC pilot scholarship to the University of South Carolina, as he mainly accepted the scholarship to pay his tuition for college. However, beginning his junior year the Air Force told him they no longer needed pilots, but he could enter the Air Force in a non-flying position, he declined. Jet entered USAF ROTC his freshman year of college. They sent him to boot camp the summer between sophomore and junior year. Because Jet had completed all requirements to enter the military while in ROTC, he was eligible when the SC ANG (South Carolina Air National Guard) called and offered him the slot. "Always be prepared, because you never know when a door is going to open", stated Jet.?My Dad, the original ?Jet Jernigan?, encouraged me to contact the South Carolina Air National Guard with my aviation package. They took my information and said ?don?t call us, we?ll call you? ?so I began a job running heavy equipment on a road crew and thought aviation was gone. Two years later, the SC ANG called and offered me the opportunity to become a commissioned officer and attend pilot training. The individual they had selected for the position was in the hospital with an illness and they were going to lose the slot to pilot training if I didn?t go. I left for Officer Candidate School 3 days later. And so, it began?? Jet Jernigan F-16 Fighter Pilot

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6 www.usaeronauticalhistory.comI had asked Jet when he knew he wanted to be not just a pilot, but a fighter pilot, and here is what he had to say. "It REALLY hit me after I was in pilot training flying the T-37 jet trainer. My 5th flight in the aircraft was a beautiful dawn takeoff at Williams AFB in Arizona. As we cruised over the quiet, calm, sunlit desert that morning, the light bulb came on for me! I realized I was where I was supposed to be. After the flight and debriefing, I went back to my quarters, kneeled down, and prayed to God to allow me to do this for my career. He granted that prayer?and many more since then ".I inquired to Jet as to what courses he majored in, both in the alignment of joining the military to become a pilot and officer. "At the time, the Air National Guard would allow you to become an officer with 60 hours of college credit, with the requirement that you complete your degree in the future. I had 62 hours of credit in Biology and Business when I was sent to OCS (Officer Candidate School) and pilot training. After I was a Captain in the SC ANG, the commander?s told me to get busy and complete my degree. Liberty University offered a distance learning program that I began and graduated after two years of 'night school' with a Bachelor of Science in Business. On a side note, I received my college diploma at a mail call in Saudi Arabia during Desert Storm! ", stated Jet.Jet had a huge advantage while in the Academy over his active-duty Air Force Academy counterparts. When he began pilot training, he knew what his assignment was going to be. He was going to live in his hometown and fly the A-7D Corsair II. He just needed to graduate high enough in his class to be "fighter qualified". All the others had to wait until graduation to find out what type aircraft and what base they would be assigned to. I had spoken with Jet and asked him to go in to detail from day one until graduation what flight school was like in the military. Especially knowing at that time with the tensions rising over seas, which eventually escalated into what us vets know as Desert Storm. For those of us that served know and understand that those times are mentally and physically draining and hard on the families and we will always thank those serving then...and now!

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7 "Initially you have to attend flight screening if you do not have a private pilot?s license. I went to Lackland Air Force Base in Texas for the flight screening program. We flew Cessna 172's that they called the T-41. The Air Force operates the flight screening program like undergraduate pilot training. You must fly the aircraft through solo flight to continue on to UPT (Undergraduate Pilot Training). Some candidates were eliminated during this program and never continued to pilot training. I soloed the T-41 on my eighth flight, and graduated from this program. I was then sent to Williams Air Force Base in Phoenix Arizona. It was the best base for pilot training available. The weather was amazing and the clear desert allowed flight training most all days".After Jet arrived at the base and being assigned a BOQ (Bachelor Officer Quarters) room, he began classes for the undergraduate pilot training course. "The material was intense, there was a lot of it, and you were expected to know it very quickly because more was coming. The initial aircraft that I was going to fly in undergraduate pilot training was the T-37 Tweet", stated Jet.The 'Tweet' is a 2 seat (side-by-side), twin engine jet with straight wings. It was a precise and predictable aircraft that was amazing to fly. Jet fell in love with jets? and doing aerobics? .and touch and go patterns.The "Tweet" T-37

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8 The academic load was intense. Learning about the technical aspects of aviation and the systems of the aircraft, instrument procedures, and FAA rules, came quickly and required Jet and his class to do a lot of ?homework? and studying."Most days we flew once, had academics the other half of the day, and went straight home to study for the next days flight or test. There were periods of required PT, including timed 1.5 mile runs and other events. You?ve got to remain fit to fly in the military!", stated Jet. Basic flight maneuvers, traffic patterns, and instrument procedures were the main focus in the Tweet. You had to have at least 85 hours to complete the T-37 portion of UPT. I finished that portion with exactly 85 hours. Next Jet moved to the T-38 Talon, a two seat supersonic jet trainer. "It was a rocket ship and I loved it! We were again deep into academics learning the new aircraft and more advanced maneuvers in the higher performance jet. Everything happened faster, but I quickly settled in. Later in the program we flew formation with our classmates, which was challenging and incredible fun! I completed the T-38 portion with 115 flight hours in that aircraft", stated Jet.Jet Jernigan and the T-38 Talon

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9 www.usaeronauticalhistory.comLaxmi in her uniform to start her 20 hour flight to the USA. After almost a year of flying and exactly 200 hours of flight time, Jet graduated from USAF UPT and received his wings as an Air Force Pilot. "My father was there to pin my wings on me! I graduated as the top pilot in my class", stated Jet.Jet then had to go to ?Fighter Lead-In? training at Holloman AFB in New Mexico. It was a program where he flew the T-38's like combat fighters. "We began learning how to fly at low altitudes close to the ground to avoid radar detection. We began training how to dogfight with an enemy aircraft. And we went to a local bombing range and dropped practice bombs. It was a great program flying a jet you were already familiar with and allowed me to focus on the tactics! After completing that program it was off to Davis Monthan AFB in Tucson Arizona for A-7D RTU (replacement training unit)".The A-7D is a single seat fighter-bomber with high swept wings and a large inlet under the cockpit. It was a technological marvel for its time. The avionics was the model for follow on fighters like the F-15, F-18, and F-16. The aircraft had a heads up display, moving map, inertial navigation system, and computerized bombing capability. It was comfortable, steady, and could drop bombs with deadly accuracy. "It also had some interesting characteristics, like departing from controlled flight if you were too rough with it! It would tumble end over end, and you just had to ride it out and hope you have enough altitude for it to recover!", stated Jet.Jet's Father, the orginnal Jet Jernigan pinning his son's wings on him after graduation.

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Jet graduated after 6 months of A-7 school. He arrived back at his unit as a new 2LT combat ready fighter pilot after almost 3 years of various schools. "I had been to Officer Candidate School, Flight Screening, Undergraduate Pilot Training, Water Survival Training, Land Survival and POW training, Fighter Lead-In, and A-7D training. It was an amazing adventure and I had found a career and grown up. I graduated first in each of my classes", stated Jet.I asked Jet what was the most difficult part of flight training for him and he stated; ?The volume of material to be mastered in such a short period of time. I didn?t think the individual lessons were hard to learn, just that you had minimal time to learn it because there was so much. It required me to apply myself more than I had ever had to while attending college". I wondered what Jet?s training and hours involved in flying were and here is what he had to say. ?If you don?t have to repeat any training flights, the minimum hours required for Under Graduate Pilot training is 200 hours; 85 in the T-37 and 115 in the 10 Jet and his Fighter Weapons School Class. This class had a future 4 Star General, 3 Star General, 2 Star General, and a pilot who would become the Leader of The Thunderbirds.

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T-38. I graduated UPT with 200.0 hours and flew another 30 hours in fighter lead in and 85 hours in A-7D Training?.The type of equipment Jet trained in and equipment he has flown in the USAF is very impressive."During training I flew the T-41 (Cessna 172), T-37 Tweet, and the T-38 Talon. The combat fighters I have flown are the A-7D Corsair II, the F-16A Fighting Falcon (Viper to the pilots), and the advanced Block 52 F-16CJ which is designed to find and kill enemy surface to air missile sites".The A-7D was Jet's first combat fighter and after graduation he began training with his unit to be a great wing man. "I had joined one of the top combat units in the world, the 157th Tactical Fighter Squadron. The SC ANG is actually older than the USAF, having been created in SC just after WWII. They had started with P-51's and a handful of WWII airmen. Over the years, the unit flew P-80's, F-86's, F-104's, F-102's, and the A-7D. Many of the pilots had combat time in Vietnam when I got in the unit, so for a young eager 2LT it was perfect!"Seat assignment is determined by class ranking, training performance reports, instructor recommendations, your aircraft preferences and our needs. Upon completion of UPT and your seat assignment, you continue flight training for the specific aircraft you were assigned. Some of our readers would like to know if Jet had a choice in the equipment he flew or if it was it an assigned type order.?If an Air National Guard unit sends a candidate to pilot training, they must get qualified on the aircraft type that unit is assigned. If I had failed to be ?fighter qualified?, I would have been cut from the program rather than receiving another assignment?.11 www.usaeronauticalhistory.comJet in his A-7D #1015, The War Eagle.

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12 Jet will now explain in full detail, what the equipment he flew in and its purpose is, as well as the duties it served while he was a fighter pilot in the USAF and ANG.?The A-7D?s primary purpose was as a bomber. It was designed to fly at low level deep behind enemy lines and interdict targets and blow-up enemy supply lines. It was also designed for close air support missions with the army. The A-7D was not designed to be an air-to-air fighter, but it did have defensive capability and carried heat seeking air to air missiles for self-defense?.?The F-16A was designed as a multirole fighter. It could perform almost any mission that was required by the US Air Force in a combat situation. We could do deep interdiction just like the A-7D. We trained with the army doing close air support. The F-16A did not have radar air to air missiles, but we had heat seeking missiles and a lethal 20MM gun that shoots 6000 rounds per minute, making the Viper an excellent air superiority fighter. We practiced air-to-air against the Navy F-18 and the US Air Force F-15. I flew 50 combat missions during Operation Desert Storm in the F-16A?.?The F-16CJ has more thrust, is faster, and has vastly superior combat systems to previous aircraft. It was designed to do all the missions the older version did. However, it?s primary job is to hunt down and kill enemy threat systems like surface to air systems, anti-aircraft guns, and enemy radars. I flew 50 combat missions in this aircraft during Operation Northern and Southern Watch in Iraq. The amount of data and the integration of the smart weapons with the aircraft, make this version of the Viper very effective?.The A-7 and F-16 Fighter Jets.

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Every military pilot has his/her favorite bird, so we obviously had to ask Jet what is was to fly and why."The F-16-A is the greatest machine ever created for the fighter pilot. Since the Wright Brothers first flew in 1903, through World War I and II, the Korean War, and Vietnam, aircraft aerodynamics, engine power, climb and turn capability all continued to advance. Until one day this miraculous light weight, greater than 1 to 1 thrust-to-weight, instantaneous 9G capable, fly by wire aircraft was created. It would fly to the edge of human physical capabilities. And yet, we were still limited in avionics capabilities. So the pilot was the most critical part of the machine. We flew low level, popped up at the last minute, attacked targets with unguided gravity bombs, and had to attack enemy aircraft during closeup dogfights. While flying the most aerodynamic fighter ever created, I as the pilot was still the most important component in the equation".As a pilot, the responsibilities are immensely detailed and we asked Jet to tell us his as a fighter pilot.?As a single seat pilot, you are responsible for everything. Fuel, speeds, instrument approaches, mission planning?every aspect of every flight. Aviation in the modern age is much safer than it was in the beginning. But it is very unforgiving if you cut corners. Attention to detail and having a plan if things go wrong is critical to long term safety and mission accomplishment?.13 www.usaeronauticalhistory.comJet flying in his favorite fighter, the F-16!

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Throughout Jet?s military career, he was based at McEntire Joint Air Base in Eastover, South Carolina. They were one of the only Air National Guard units in America with their own base. ?It was a tremendous asset, as we controlled how we operated and were able to maximize our training and combat capabilities?, stated Jet.Jet was a member of the 157 Fighter Squadron, in the 169 Fighter Wing, in the South Carolina Air National Guard. ?The SWAMP FOX?. ?The name comes from their mascot ?General Francis Marion? who fought the British during the revolutionary war. He would lead attacks against them, then disappear into the swamps of SC. The British called him the Swamp Fox. He was one of the original ?citizen soldiers defending his country. We wear the Swamp Fox logo proudly?, stated Jet.As with every military pilot I interview, I always ask them what was the most difficult decision they have had to make? Whether it be a safety issue, combat, mechanical, personnel, etc.?Developing the plan for the day one attack during Operation Desert Storm was hard. Not because of the tactics. I had been well trained on the best way to destroy SAMs. The hard part was I didn?t see how we could do the mission without losing some of my14 www.usaeronauticalhistory.comJet and D Flight, 157 Tactical Fighter Squadron, Operation Desert Storm.

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15 www.usaeronauticalhistory.comfriends to enemy fire. I loved the pilots I flew with, and the plan we were going to do was mine?so how many would I lose that day? During the day one mission we had 40-50 surface to air missiles launched at us and heavy anti-aircraft fire (AAA). I was sure several of my friends had been shot down. When we got back into friendly territory, I gave the command to check in on the radio. It remains one of the greatest moments when one at a time, all 20 guys checked in...that alone will forever be the greatest days of my military flying career".?Today?s military aviator must be incredibly disciplined and have a diverse skill set. All the intangibles, physical capability, competitive nature, and the ability to meld into a team must still be there. But today?s aviator must be a world class systems operator with the ability to timeshare and process large amounts of data. They must prioritize what data is important now and at each stage of the flight all while flying the aircraft and working in conjunction with other flight members. When a modern 4 ship of American fighters is working as one, it is an awesome force", stated Jet.Below is a video of You know you are a TOP GUN fighter pilot when you have General Colin Powell talking about your courage, bravery and humble honesty. We lost Colin Powell in 2021 due to Covid 19. Colin Powell speaks about the first night of Operation Desert Storm and his reaction to the news footage. General Powell refers to the comments made by F-16 Pilot (at that time) Major Jet Jernigan of the SC Air National Guard. Major Jet Jernigan was the Team Leader for the 1989 Gunsmoke World Champions. The 169th Fighter Wing won the title in October of 1989, and they fought in Desert Storm with "World Champions"painted on the tail of their F-16?s.General Colin Powell interview talking about Jet Jernigan

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16 www.usaeronauticalhistory.comAs at the end of every interview I conduct with a pilot, military or civilian, I always ask what they recommend to any young men and women looking to achieve their aviation goals. In this case through the military and the route they should take.?Keep your grades up, avoid any trouble that could keep you from joining the military. Get a job at the local airport. Start flying locally if possible. I would talk to recruiters from the various services and see what is offered?ask them what are the requirements to be a commissioned officer? How soon could you enter pilot training if you joined. The Air National Guard was the perfect route for me and would be my first choice today. Each state has a home unit, so you can start there. Or do a little research on what aircraft each state flies, and contact those with what missions and aircraft are most appealing to you. Aviation is the best career in the world. Even if you chose an aviation path outside the military, the opportunities are endless and the quality of life is high. We have the greatest office in the world?. the cockpit"!"I have been all over the world and associated with the most amazing people. The adventure continues,", stated Jet!Jet Jernigan preparing for flight in his F-16.

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17 www.usaeronauticalhistory.comSince Jet retired from the military, he is now a corporate pilot flying a King Air 350 through end Eastern U.S., Canada and the Caribbean. The FAA granted Jet the call sign ?Swamp Fox 1?, so he is technically and will forever be a Swamp Fox! In Jet?s off time he loves to travel, exercise and be a strong godly family man!Jet, sir, it was an honor to interview you and have you in our magazine. I am proud to call you a friend and Godspeed, as you are the REAL TOP GUN of combat fighters! Jet Jernigan tent mates during the war. Wayne ?Hawk? Nutt, D-Dawg Pennington and ?Bullet? Bellinger.Jet at the USAF Fighter Weapons School.

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18 www.usaeronauticalhistory.comBelow is t he tremendous career accomplishments of Colonel George R. "Jet " Jernigan, III.Col Jernigan flew 1,100 hours in the A-7D. In Jan 1983 he attended the F-16 conversion course and the F-16 Instructor Course at MacDill AFB, Fla. He won the ?Academic Award? was named the ?Honor Graduate? for both training courses.In Jan 1985 Col Jernigan became the first ANG Pilot to attend USAF Fighter Weapons School at Nellis AFB Nevada where he won the ?Flying Award? as the Top Pilot in his class.After winning the TOP GUN award for the SC ANG for 1986 and 1988, Col Jernigan led the 1989 Gunsmoke Team that won the Gunsmoke World Championship bombing competition in October 1989. In Jan 1991 Col Jernigan led his unit deployment to Saudi Arabia and was chosen to lead the first combat mission in Kuwait during Operation Desert Storm, where he flew 50 Combat missions into Iraq. Col Jernigan was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and 5 Air Medals. Col Jernigan was named Squadron Commander of the 157th Fighter Squadron in 1994, and the Operations Group Commander of the 169th Ops Group in 1997. He directed his unit?s conversion through the Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses mission in the Block 52 F-16CM. Col Jernigan was named Vice Wing Commander in April 2000 and retired after 28 years of service in August 2001. After retirement Col Jernigan flew for American Airlines for 2 years, opened a retail salon business with his wife, and flew corporate aircraft for a major construction company. He was recently employed by Boeing, where he served as a Contract Instructor Pilot at Misawa Air Base, Japan where he provided flight instruction for the F-16 pilots of the 35th FW. Col Jernigan has over 6000 hours of flight time. His awards include the Congressional Legion of Merit, The Distinguished Flying Cross, 5 Air Medals, Commendation Medal (2 awards), Achievement Medal (2 awards), various other service and campaign awards. He was also awarded the South Carolina Order of the Palmetto by Governor Nikki Haley. Jet and Congressman Joe Wilson when he received the SC Order of the Palmetto.

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19 www.usaeronauticalhistory.comSOME ACCOMPLISHMENTS- Honor Graduate - ANG Academy of Military Science (OTS)- Honor Graduate - USAF Undergraduate Pilot Training.- Honor Graduate - USAF A-7D Upgrade Training- Honor Graduate - USAF F-16 Upgrade Training.- Academic Award - USAF F-16 Upgrade Training- Flying Award - USAF F-16 Weapons School.- Annual Top Gun Award (multiple)- Guard Association- SCANG Combat Flight Leadership Award.- Gunsmoke World Champion Team Leader- Outstanding Graduate - Air Command & Staff College.- Led Unit Deployment to Saudi Arabia for Desert Storm- Led First Combat Mission into Kuwait (Desert Storm).- Awarded Distinguished Flying Cross and 5 Air Medals- Air Force Association National Board of Directors.- Outstanding Graduate ? USAF Air War College- Led Unit Deployment on 14.5 hours deployment to Qatar.- Central European Pilots Association Pilot of the Year- Led unit to record time change of mission to SEAD.- Commander during 165 Combat Missions over Northern Iraq- Awarded Congressional Legion of Merit.- Certified by the FAA as an American Airlines MD-80 Co-Pilot- Qualified by Boeing and PACAF as F-16 Contract IP.- Qualified as Lead IP for Misawa AB Japan Simulator- Qualified as Stan Eval Flight Examiner Misawa AB Japan.- Assistant Site Manager, Boeing Mission Training Center- Awarded the State of South Carolina Order of the Palmetto.- Helped Pratt & Whitney persuade the Egyptian Air Force to select PW-229 engines.

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20 www.usaeronauticalhistory.comJet Jernigan's King Air 350.Jet?s post military job flying MD80?s for AA and Base Commander Dick Noble presents Jet Jernigan a plaque after his FINI flight.Jet speaking on Veterans Day.

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21 I found it fitting to do this segment on the F-16 Fighter jet in honor of Colonel "Jet" Jernigan. The F-16 is by far one of the most versatile aircraft in the U.S. Air Force inventory, the F-16 Fighting Falcon has been the mainstay of the Air Force aerial combat fleet. With over 1,000 F-16's in service, the platform has been adapted to complete a number of missions, including air-to-air fighting, ground attack and electronic warfare.The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine multi role fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics for the United States Air Force. Designed as an air superiority day fighter, it evolved into a successful all-weather multi role aircraft. A large number of variants of the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon have been produced by General Dynamics, Lockheed Martin, and various licensed manufacturers.In designing the F-16, advanced aerospace science and proven reliable systems from other aircraft such as the F-15 and F-111 were selected. These were combined to simplify the airplane and reduce its size, purchase price, maintenance costs and weight. The light weight of the fuselage is achieved without reducing its strength. With a full load of internal fuel, the F-16 can withstand up to nine G's, nine times the force of gravity, which exceeds the capability of other current fighter aircraft.Article by Jimi Simmons

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22 www.usaeronauticalhistory.comThe F-16B is a two-seat model, has tandem cockpits that are about the same size as the one in the A model. Its bubble canopy extends to cover the second cockpit. To make room for the second cockpit, the forward fuselage fuel tank and avionics growth space were reduced. During training, the forward cockpit is used by a student pilot with an instructor pilot in the rear cockpit.All F-16's delivered since November 1981 have built-in structural and wiring provisions and systems architecture that permit expansion of the multi role flexibility to perform precision strike, night attack and beyond-visual-range interception missions. This improvement program led to the F-16C and F-16D aircraft, which are the single- and two-place counterparts to the F-16A/B, and incorporate the latest cockpit control and display technology. All active units and many Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve units have converted to the F-16C/D.The cockpit and its bubble canopy give the pilot unobstructed forward and upward vision, and greatly improved vision over the side and to the rear. The seat-back angle was expanded from the usual 13 degrees to 30 degrees, increasing pilot comfort and gravity force tolerance. The pilot has excellent flight control of the F-16 through its "fly-by-wire" system. Electrical wires relay commands, replacing the usual cables and linkage controls. For easy and accurate control of the aircraft during high G-force combat maneuvers, a side stick controller is used instead of the conventional center-mounted stick. Hand pressure on the side stick controller sends electrical signals to actuators of flight control surfaces such as ailerons and rudder.

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23 www.usaeronauticalhistory.comAvionics systems include a highly accurate enhanced global positioning and inertialnavigation systems, or EGI, in which computers provide steering information to the pilot.The  plane  has  UHF  and  VHF  radios  plus  an  instrument  landing  system.  It  also has  awarning  system  and  modular  countermeasure  pods  to  be  used  against  airborne  orsurface electronic threats. The fuselage has space for additional avionics systemsThe  F-16  Fighting  Falcon  was  built  under  an  unusual  agreement  creating  aconsortium between the United States and four NATO countries: Belgium, Denmark, theNetherlands  and Norway. These countries jointly  produced with the  United  States aninitial 348  F-16's for  their air forces. Final  airframe  assembly  lines  were located inBelgium and the Netherlands. The consortium's F-16's are assembled from componentsmanufactured  in  all  five  countries.  Belgium  also  provides  final  assembly  of  the  F100engine  used  in  the  European  F-16s.  Recently,  Portugal joined  the  consortium.  Thelong-term  benefits  of  this  program  will  be  technology  transfer  among  the  nationsproducing the F-16, and a common-use aircraft for NATO nations. This program increasesthe  supply  and  availability  of  repair  parts  in  Europe  and  improves  the  F-16's  combatreadiness.USAF F-16 multi role fighters were deployed to the Persian Gulf in 1991 in supportCLICK ON THE PICTURE ABOVE FOR A MORE DETAILED VIEW.

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24 www.usaeronauticalhistory.comof Operation Desert Storm, where more sorties were flown than with any other aircraft. These fighters were used to attack airfields, military production facilities, Scud missiles sites and a variety of other targets.During Operation Allied Force, USAF F-16 fighting falcon fighters flew a variety of missions to include suppression of enemy air defense, offensive counter air, defensive counter air, close air support and forward air controller missions. Mission results were outstanding as these fighters destroyed radar sites, vehicles, tanks, MiGs and buildings.Since Sept. 11, 2001, the F-16 fighting falcon has been a major component of the combat forces committed to the Global War on Terrorism flying thousands of sorties in support of operations Noble Eagle (Homeland Defense), Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan and Iraqi Freedom.GENERALCHARACTERISTICSCrew: 1 Length: 49 ft 5 in Wingspan: 32 ft 8 in Height: 16 ft Wing area: 300 sq ftAirfoil: NACA 64A204 Empty weight: 18,900 lb Gross weight: 26,500 lbMax takeoff weight: 42,300 lbFuel capacity: 7,000 poundsPowerplant: 1 × General Electric F110-GE-129 after burning turbofan (for Block 50 version), 17,155 lb thrust dry, 29,500 lb with afterburnerPowerplant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229 after burning turbofan (for Block 52 version), 17,800 lb thrust dry, 29,560 lb with afterburnerPERFORMANCEMaximum speed: Mach 2.05 1,318 mph; at 40,000 feet, clean Mach 1.2, 921 mph; at sea levelCombat range: 295 nmi on a hi-lo-hi mission with 4 × 1,000 lb bombsFerry range: 2,277 nmi with drop tanks Service ceiling: 58,000 ftg limits: +9.0Roll rate: 324°/sWing loading: 88.3 lb/sq ft Thrust/weight: 1.095 (1.24 w/ loaded wt. & 50% internal fuel)

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25 ARMERMANTGuns: 1 × 20 mm (0.787 in) M61A1 Vulcan 6-barrel rotary cannon, 511 roundsHardpoints: 2 × wing-tip air-to-air missile launch rails, 6 × under-wing, and 3 × under-fuselage pylon (2 of 3 for sensors) stations with a capacity of up to 17,000 lb of storesRockets:4 × LAU-61/LAU-68 rocket pods (each with 19/7 × Hydra 70 mm/APKWS[334] rockets, respectively)4 × LAU-5003 rocket pods (each with 19 × CRV7 70 mm rockets)4 × LAU-10 rocket pods (each with 4 × Zuni 127 mm rockets)Missiles:Air-to-air missiles:6 × AIM-9 Sidewinder6 × AIM-120 AMRAAM6 × IRIS-T6 × Python-46 × Python-5Air-to-surface missiles:6 × AGM-65 Maverick2 × AGM-88 HARMAGM-158 Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile4 × AGM-154 Joint Standoff WeaponAnti-ship missiles:2 × AGM-84 Harpoon 4 × AGM-119 PenguinBombs:8 × CBU-87 Combined Effects Munition 8 × CBU-89 Gator mine 8 × CBU-97 Sensor Fuzed Weapon 4 × Mark 84 general-purpose bombs8 × Mark 83 GP bombs12 × Mark 82 GP bombs 8 × GBU-39 Small Diameter Bomb (SDB)4 × GBU-10 Paveway II 6 × GBU-12 Paveway II4 × GBU-24 Paveway III 4 × GBU-27 Paveway III4 × Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) series Wind Corrected Munitions Dispenser (WCMD) B61 nuclear bomb B83 nuclear bomb

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26 USAH video with the F-16 Viper Demo Team 2019.Swamp Fox Flight Operations at Tyndall by Master Sgt. Carl Clegg.

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27 www.usaeronauticalhistory.comIn this month?s issue of Women in Aviation, we bring you Pilot Sarah Greiner. Sarah currently flies for (and instructs for) Aces Aviation in a Piper Cherokee 140. ?I absolutely love the plane, but sometimes it is a little too slow for me. Through Rocky College I fly their Piper Archer and their Piper Seminole. I have another instructing job in a Piper Cherokee 180, and I received my initial Private rating on a Cessna 170, a SkyWest Cadet", stated Sarah. Sarah grew up in New Hampshire and spent her first 13 years there. ?It is such a beautiful state with so many colors and beautiful seasons. My dad?s job was relocated from New Hampshire to Dallas-Fort Worth during the spring-summer time when I turned 13. I started 8th grade in the fall and fell in love with Texas. It was nothing like New Hampshire, but I loved the warmer weather and not having to be freezing all the time. I did 8th grade through senior year of high school in Argyle, Texas and made some amazing friends while I was there, but they didn?t compare to the ones I had in New Hampshire. During my senior year of high school, I started looking at different colleges. I had my heart set on Rocky Mountain College in Billings, MT. I?ve loved the college and the state of Montana, bringing me back to actual seasons versus Texas? seasons of Hot and not Hot. I am in my junior year of college". I asked Sarah to tell our readers how she first became interested in aviation as many of our pilots interviewed have had many introductions in many ways.?My dad bought me a discovery flight when I was 15 years old and I fell in love with flying the moment we took off. At 17 my dad signed me up for the Embry Riddle summer camp and at the end of it I was able to solo in their plane. I loved the idea of how muchArticle by Jimi SimmonsSARAH GREI NER

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28 www.usaeronauticalhistory.comexcitement it had brought me and I knew it was something I wanted to do for the rest of my life. During my senior year of high school I started my Private training at Alliance Airport in Fort Worth, Texas. It took me around a year to complete my private, finishing it right before I started my freshman year of college. The hardest part of my training was finding a solid instructor who had enough time in their schedule to train me?, stated Sarah. Sarah currently holds her private, instrument, commercial, CFI, and high performance. As of right now, she is currently working on her CFII and her multi engine at the same time. ?In the future I really want to get my seaplane, tailwheel, and do some aerobatic training. Once I did spin training during my CFI and I really wanted to do more thrilling things, that's why I want to do aerobatic training?, stated Sarah. For those ladies interested in getting your commercial training, here is what Sarah can tell you about it. ?My commercial training took me about 7 months. One of the hardest obstacles was trying to find plane availability since there are a lot of cross countries involved in the commercial syllabus. Another obstacle was learning the commercial maneuvers and being very precise with everything. Lazy Eights were the most difficult for me to learn because they were never 'lazy? enough for the instructor or the DPE?.Sarah sitting in the left seat of a CRJ.

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29 www.usaeronauticalhistory.comAs we know in aviation, there are so many avenues to take when it comes to commercial so we asked Sarah to tell our readers what her future goals are moving forward in her career. ?My goal after college is to go and fly for SkyWest airlines until I reach the major?s min. Rocky has a partnership with SkyWest which has really helped me in my airline search. Instead of jumping through more hoops after college or my senior year, I know I am 100% guaranteed to have a job with them, (if I pass the final interview). I have thought about doing aerial firefighting because that would be something exhilarating and enjoyable for myself. That is something way down the road though because you need a lot more hours before you can apply". Sarah's goals for the aviation industry are doing something thrilling with the ratings that she currently holds. "I would love to do aerial firefighting. In order to achieve that dream I need a lot more hours so I would have to go to an airline or a private charter company after I graduate. It would be a really rewarding career and also a very thrilling one", stated Sarah.I asked Sarah to give our readers an insight to the pros and cons of her job.?There are a ton of pros and cons of being a flight instructor. Some of the pros are that I love teaching students and giving them the knowledge that I already have to help them be successful. Another pro is to take everything that I disliked about my previous Go to this link to purchase tickets!

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30 www.usaeronauticalhistory.cominstructors and try to find a better way to teach my students. For example, I teach them different ways that I did not understand through my private training to make it easier on my students. Some of the cons are allowing students to mess up and learn from it. For example, when we are doing stalls, I see my students using improper rudder correction. I have to draw a line where I want them to catch their mistake and not let them go too far. Students need to learn from their mistakes, but it is very hard to figure out how far they should go?.With Sarah being an instructor, she has many students who are in different lessons during their private training. ?For my students who are further along and past the solo stage, my responsibility is watching what they are doing and making sure they are following the proper procedures. I also make sure they are being a safe pilot and I am there to help with anything they may need. For my students who are just starting out I will be the person in charge of the procedures. I walk them through every procedure from start to finish to make sure they understand what is happening. Some of my most difficult decisions are related to weather. I have a student who has not flown in the past month because of the bad weather we are getting in Montana?, stated Sarah. In today?s time and age, it appears safety for flight crews and passengers has become a very apparent issue with the assaults on FA?s, other passengers, etc. I did ask Sarha how she has handled this as it appears passengers feel as though they can disrupt and assault crews at their leisure.?Since I am a CFI I don?t have to deal with this on a daily basis. I worked for Cape Air in the past and had to deal with unruly and difficult passengers from time to time. In my experience, I think there are two ways that the FAA can address this issue: First would be to train FA and flight personnel on de-escalation techniques. If they can diffuse a situation early, that would be the best solution for everyone. Second, I think flight attendants and pilots should be going through basic self-defense courses so when some of these extreme events happen, they can protect themselves, the other passengers, and the plane?.I asked Sarah how the Covid-19 pandemic affected her personally and as a commercial pilot. ?The Covid-19 pandemic affected me because they had to shut down the flight program at Rocky due to the unknowns about the virus. This happened while I was working on my instrument rating so it ended up delaying my progress?.

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As many pilots have their favorite destinations to fly, Sarah?s favorite place to fly to is Greybull, Wyoming to see all of the old planes parked out there. ?They have a lot of old planes that they have scrapped for parts and you can see them all sitting out there. My boyfriend and I flew there last year for my birthday and I was able to see some of the planes on the ramp up close?, stated Sarah. As in every pilot interview, I ask every pilot to give me their view of what makes the ?ideal Pilot and here is what Sarah had to say. ?The ideal pilot has to consist of a lot of key personality traits. The first one is having to be a natural born leader. Once you become the PIC of the plane, every decision is your decision to make and you need to be a leader for your crew. Another attribute is being able to stay calm in high stress situations. In an emergency you need to stay calm to ensure the safety of your whole crew. No one needs a pilot who is freaking out because they do not know what to do. If you don?t know what to do, read the checklist and stay calm. A pilot also needs to be able to communicate with their crew to have good crew resource management (CRM). In any situation in aviation you are a part of the team and you are all equal, use your resources and respect your crew?.When Sarah is not working, she likes to play golf, as she played for her high school golf team in H.S. and she played one year of golf for Rocky Mountain College. She also likes to hike and snowboard.At the end of every pilot interview, I as what they recommend to any woman or man looking to start a career as a pilot in aviation. ?I strongly suggest getting a discovery flight so you know it is something you want to do. Some schools offer discovery flights at a very good price versus their normal hourly rate. If you like the discovery flight, talk to the school about starting your private training or look into some other schools. Also start thinking about where you see yourself in aviation. Do you want to fly passengers or cargo? Do you want to do something thrilling in aviation?.31

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